James Garfield was the 20th President of the United States.
Garfield was born in 1831 in Moreland Hills, Ohio. He was raised on a farm by his widowed mother and brother. In 1851, he attended Hiram College and became interested in Latin and Greek and began teaching these ancient languages professionally. Garfield was also a talented public speaker, and began speakind on behalf of the Republican Party. He retired from teaching and began studying law, becoming a lawyer in 1860.
In 1859, Garfield was elected to the Ohio State Senate, where his most most notable accomplishment was pushing through a bill that took the states first geological survey. In 1861, he entered the Civil War and reached the rank of brigadier general and was present at the famos Battle of Shiloh. He became a member of the House of Representatives in 1863, and served in the house until 1880 when he was elected to the Senate. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, The two main Republican factions, the "Stalwarts" and the "Half-Breeds" were indecisive about who to nominate for President and Vice President. They ultimately chose James Garfield, a Half-Breed, for President and Chester Arthur, a Stalwart, for Vice President. Garfield had hoped to reform civil service, but was assasinated by Charles Guiteau in his first year in office.